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Printer A printer is not required to run the software but, of course, if you want a hard copy printout , then it is necessary to have a printer attached. The printing is standard so that no special features, characters, or printers are required.

Typographic conventions in this manual 1. Boldface indicates something that you type or press. Brackets, [ ], name a key on the keyboard or a command button on the screen. The name of the key varies on different keyboards and some keyboards even have both keys. Boldface and the capitalized first letter of a term refer to a Windows menu command.

For example, File refers to the menu command. Installing the Software The software is installed in the manner in which most programs designed for Windows are installed. For all Windows installations, including this one, it is best to be certain that no other programs are running while you are installing a new one. Go to the appropriate Pearson web site or your MyOMLab course, download the installation file and follow the setup instructions on the screen.

Generally speaking, it is simply necessary to click [NEXT] each time that the installation asks a question. Default values have been assigned in the setup program, but you may change them if you like. This name cannot be changed later!

To change the other information from within the program, use Help, User Information. This can be changed from within the program, use Help, User Information. One option that the installation will question you about is whether you want to be able to run the program by double clicking on the file name in File Explorer. This is generally very useful. The installation will back up any files that are replaced if you select the backup option.

If you see a message saying that something is wrong during installation and you have the option of ignoring it, choose this option. The program will likely install properly anyway. The message usually indicates that you are running a program or have run a program that shares a file with this software package.

If you have any installation or operation problems, the first place to check is the Download and Supports page at www. Installing and Running on a Network With the written permission of Pearson, it is permissible to install the software to a network only if each student has purchased an individual copy of the software. That is, each student must possess his or her own licensed copy of the CD in order to install the software on a network.

The Program Group The installation will add a program group with two items to the Start Menu if your version of Windows has a Start menu.. The names of the items POM or QM depend on the web site from which the installation program was downloaded. To uninstall the program use the usual Windows uninstall procedure which depends on which version of Windows you have. The programs will be removed but the data files you have created may not be depending on your version of Windows and where you have placed your data files.

In addition to the Start menu, the installation will place a shortcut to the program on the desktop. The icon appears as one of the two icons displayed below depending on the textbook being used. Whichever desktop icon has been installed is the icon that can be used to easily begin the program. Starting the Program The easiest way to start the program is by double clicking the program icon that is on the desktop.

Alternatively, you may use any standard Windows means for starting the program. After starting the program, a splash screen will appear as follows. This should be your name if you are running on a stand-alone computer or the network name if you are running on a network. Version Number One important piece of information is the version number of the software. In the example, the version is 5. If you send e-mail asking for technical support, you should include the build number with the e-mail.

The program will start in a couple of seconds after the opening display appears and a screen with instructions on 4 steps with how to work with the software will appear. There is an option on the bottom left to prevent this screen from displaying. The Main Screen The next screen that appears is an empty main menu screen. In order to display all of the screen components, the following screen shows a module and a loaded data file.

At the beginning the title is POM for Windows or QM for Window and the names of the authors of your Pearson text should appear in this title bar at the beginning of the program as shown in the figure on the previous page. If not, go to Help, User Information. The title bar will change to include the name of the file when a file is loaded or saved as shown above.

On the left of the title bar is the standard Windows control box and on the right are the standard minimize, maximize, and close buttons for the window-sizing options.

Below the title bar is a bar that contains the main menu. The menu bar is very conventional and should be easy to use. At the beginning of the program, the Edit option is not enabled, because there is no data to edit. The Solutions option is also disabled, because this refers to results windows and there are as yet no results. This toolbar contains shortcuts for several of the most commonly used menu commands.

If you move the mouse over the tool for about two seconds, an explanation of the tool balloon help or tool tip appears on the screen. It is possible to reduce the height of the toolbar by using the View menu to remove the labels from the toolbars. This is what you press after you have entered the data and you are ready to solve the problem. Alternatively, you may click on the Solutions menu; use File, Solve or press the [F9] key.

This is how you go back and forth from entering data to viewing the solution. For two modules, linear programming and transportation, there is one more command that will appear on the standard toolbar. This is the STEP tool not displayed in the figure , and it enables you to step through the iterations, displaying one iteration at a time.

If you indicated that you are a MyOMLab user when you installed the software or from User Preferences then another toolbar will appear as shown above with tools to be used for pasting from MyOMLab and setting the decimals to match the specification in the MyOMLab problem. Below the standard toolbar is a format toolbar. This toolbar is very similar to the toolbars found in Excel, Word, and other Windows programs.

The table contains a heading or title, and rows and columns. Double-clicking on the title or using Format, Title will give you the option to modify the title. The number of rows and columns depends on the module, problem type, and specific problem. Above the data table is an area named the extra data bar for placing extra problem information. Sometimes it is necessary to indicate whether to minimize or maximize, sometimes it is necessary to select a method, and sometimes some value must be given.

These generally appear above the data. There is always an instruction in the instruction panel to help you to determine what to do or what to enter. When data is to be entered into the data table, this instruction will explain what type of data integer, real, positive, etc. There also is an area for annotating problems.

A comment may be placed here. When the file is saved, the comment will be saved; when the file is loaded, the comment will appear and the comment may be printed if so desired. Toward the bottom of the screen is the status bar. The center panel contains the type of screen data, results, menu, graph, etc. The status bar can be hidden by using the View option. This panel cannot be moved. On the left side of the screen is a module tree that allows you to easily start new problems, rather than using the Module and File menus in the main toolbar.

This enables the student to easily create multiple problems using the same module. The tree can be hidden and then it can be redisplayed through the use of the View menu. Although not all problems or modules are identical, there is enough similarity among them that seeing one example will make it very easy to use any module in this software.

As mentioned in the introduction, the first instruction is to select a module to begin the work. Modules can be selected from either the Module Tree on the left or the Module menu or the textbook menu.

The Module menu has the capability to display only the POM modules or only the QM modules or all of the modules in the software. Creating a New Problem Generally, the first menu option that will be chosen is File, followed by either New, to create a new data set, or Open, to load a previously saved data set.

The Module Tree on the left of the screen can be used for a quicker start to new problems. In the figure that follows, the creation screen that is used when a new problem is started is displayed. Obviously, creating a new problem is an option that will be chosen very often. The creation screens are similar for all modules, but there are slight differences that you will see from module to module. The default title can be changed by pressing the button [Modify Default Title].

If you want to change the title after creating the problem, this can easily be done by using the Format, Title option from the main menu or double-clicking on the title on the Data Screen. For many modules, it is necessary to enter the number of rows in the problem. Rows will have different names depending on the module. At any rate, the number of rows can be chosen with either the scrollbar or the text box.

As is usually the case in Windows, they are connected. As you move the scrollbar, the number in the text box changes; as you change the text, the scrollbar moves. In general, the maximum number of rows in any module is There are three ways to add or delete rows or columns after the problem has been created. Rows will be inserted after the rows that you have selected in the data table, just as is the case in Excel.

The same holds true for columns. This program has the capability to allow you different options for the default row names. Select one of the six option buttons in order to indicate which style of default naming should be used. In most modules, the row names can be changed by editing the data table.

Many modules require a number of columns. This is given in the same way as the number of rows. The program gives you a choice of default values for column names in the same fashion as row names but on the tab Column Names. An overview tab is included on the creation screen in this version of the software. The overview tab gives a brief description of the models that are available and also gives any important information regarding the creation or data entry for that module. Some modules, such as the linear programming example displayed previously, will have an extra option box, such as for choosing minimize or maximize or selecting whether distances are symmetric.

Select one of these options. In most cases, this option can be changed later on the data screen in case you have made a mistake. When you are satisfied with your choices, click on the [OK] button. At this point, a blank data screen will appear as in the following figure.

Screens will differ module by module but they will all resemble the following screen. The Data Screen The data screen was described briefly in Chapter 1.

It has a data table and, for many models, there is extra information that appears above the data table follows. Every entry is in a row and column position.

You navigate through the spreadsheet using the cursor movement keys or the mouse. The instruction frame on the screen contains a brief instruction describing what is to be done. There are essentially three types of cells in the data table.

One type is a regular data cell into which you enter either a name or a number. When entering names and numbers, simply type the name or number, then press the [Enter] key, one of the direction keys, or click on another cell. The [Enter] key is often best as it will automatically move to the next row at the end of one row. If you type an illegal character, a message box will be displayed indicating so.

A second type is a cell that cannot be edited. For example, the empty cell in the upper left-hand corner of the table cannot be edited. You actually could paste into the cell. For example, the signs in a linear programming constraint are chosen from this type of box, as shown in the following illustration.

To see all of the options, press the arrow on the drop-down box. When you are finished entering the data, press the SOLVE tool on the toolbar or use [F9] or File, Solve or the Solutions menu item and a solution screen will appear as given in the following illustration. The original data is in black and the solution is in a color. This can be seen by the Solutions menu item. If you click on the Help, User Preferences button you can set up the behavior of the software when a problem is solved.

The next two options remind you that more results may exist than the one window displayed. The second option automatically drops down the Window menu while the third option opens all available windows when you solve a problem.

Now that the creation and solution of a problem have been examined, all of the options that are available in the main menu are explained. These options are now described. New As demonstrated in the sample problem, this option is chosen to begin a new problem or file. In some cases, you will go directly to the problem creation screen, whereas in other cases a pop-up menu will appear indicating the submodels that are available.

After selecting a submodel, you will go to the creation screen. File selection is done using the standard Windows common dialog type. An example of the screen for opening a file follows. Notice that the extension for files in the software system is almost always given by the first three letters of the module name. When you go to the Open File dialog, the default value is for the program to look for files of the type in this module.

It is possible to use Help, User Information to set the program to automatically solve any problem when it gets loaded. This way, if you like, you can be looking at the solution screen whenever you load a problem rather than at the data screen. Close Close will close the current model. This is here to be consistent with Office programs but is not very useful since you can only have one model open at a time in POM-QM as opposed to Excel or Word where you can have multiple documents open simulotaneously.

If you try to save and have not previously named the file, you will be asked to name this file. That is, the command will function as Save As. Save as Save as will prompt you for a file name before saving.

This option is very similar to the option to load a data file. It is essentially identical to the one previously shown for opening files. The names that are legal are standard Windows file names. In addition to the file name, you may preface the name with a drive letter with its colon or path designation.

The software will automatically append an extension to the name that you use. As mentioned previously, the extension is typically the first three letters of the module name. You may type file names in as uppercase, lowercase, or mixed. Examples of legal file names are sample, sample. If you enter sample. For example, if the module is linear programming, the name under which the file will be saved will be sample.

Save as Excel File The software has an option that allows you to save most but not all of the problems as Excel files. The data is transported to Excel and the spreadsheet is filled with formulas for the solutions. For example, following is the output from a waiting line model. The left-hand side has the data, whereas the right-hand side has the solution. Notice from the formula for cell E7 shown at the top of the spreadsheet that a spreadsheet with formulas was created.

Print Print will display a Print Setup screen. Printing options are described in Chapter 4. Solve There are several ways to solve a problem. Clicking on File, Solve is probably the least efficient way to solve the problem. The toolbar icon may be used, as well as selection the Solutions menu or using the [F9] key. This is the easiest way to go back and forth between data and solutions.

Note that Help, User Information may be used to set the program to automatically maximize the solution windows if so desired. Step For the linear programming and transportation modules, a Step option not displayed in the preceding figure will appear in the File menu and on the toolbar.

Exit The next option on the File menu is Exit. This will exit the program. You will be asked if you want to exit the program. You can eliminate this question by using Help, User Information. Last Four Files The File menu contains a list of the last four files that you have used. Clicking on one of these will load the file. Edit The commands under Edit can be seen in the following illustration.

Their purposes are threefold. Insert Rows inserts a row after each selected row s , and Insert Columns inserts a column after each selected column s. Delete Row s deletes the selected row s , and Delete Column s deletes the selected column s.

Paste Paste is used to paste in the current contents of the clipboard. Thus, it is possible to copy a column to a different column beginning in a different row. This could be done to create a diagonal. It is not possible to paste into a solution table, although, as indicated previously, it is possible to copy from a solution table.

Copy Entry Down Column The Copy Down command is used to copy an entry from one cell to all cells below it in the column. This is not often useful, but it can save a great deal of work when it is. Note: Right clicking on any table will bring up Copy options and if the table is the data table it will also bring up the insert and delete options.

View View has several options that enable you to customize the appearance of the screen. In addition, the labels on the toolbars can be displayed or hidden. There is an option under Help, User Information that will automatically autosize the columns of all windows — data and solution windows. Textbook This menu will display the modules in the order in which they appear in your textbook.

Note that if you are using a custom textbook the chapters may not be the same since this menu is based on the non-custom version of the textbook. Module A drop-down list with all of the modules in alphabetical order will appear. At the bottom of the list are options for indicating whether you want to display only the POM modules as displayed , only the QM modules, or all of the modules as the following display shows. Please see the appendix. Format Format has several options for the display of data and solution tables, as can be seen in the following illustration.

In addition, there are some additional format options available in the format toolbar. The Comma option displays numbers greater than with a comma. The Increase and Decrease Number of decimals controls the maximum number of decimals displayed. If you turn on the Fixed decimal option, then all numbers would have 2 decimals. Thus 1. The Leading Zero option displays numbers less than one with a leading 0 such as 0. Zeros can be set to display as blanks rather than zeros in tables.

The problem title that appears in the data table, and which was created at the creation screen, also can be changed. Note: All tables can have their column widths changed by clicking on the line separating the columns and dragging the column divider left or right. Double clicking on this line will not automatically adjust the column width as it does in Excel.

The input can be checked by the software or not using the Verify Input option. It is a good idea to always check the input, but not checking allows you to put entries into cells that otherwise could not be put there. Background Colors The background colors can be set to their default colors for Version5 or gray as in Version 4 or any other custom color.

Double-clicking on the problem title will also bring up the title editor. Tools The software should find the Windows calculator if you select the Calculator option. If not, a calculator is available for simple calculations, including square root.

Numbers may be copied from the calculator and pasted into an individual cell in the data table. A Normal Distribution Calculator is available for performing calculations related to the Normal distribution. This is particularly useful for forecasting and project management. An example of the Normal Calculator appears in Chapter 6 in the section on project management. The same computations can be done in the Statistics module but the calculator is a little more intuitive to use. The Calendar tool brings up a calendar.

This can be useful for Aggregate Planning problems or simply if you want to see a calendar. There is an area available to Comment problems. If you want to write a note to yourself about the problem, select Comment.

The note will be saved with the file if you save the file. An example of annotation appears in Chapter 1. In order to eliminate the annotation completely, the box must be blank by deleting and then the file must be resaved. When you print, you have an option to print the note or not. The Snipping tool brings up the Windows snipping tool. The Options tool brings up user preferences as can also be done using Help, User Preferences and will be displayed under the Help explanation.

This menu option is enabled only at the solution screen. Notice that in this example there are six different output screens that can be viewed. The number of windows depends on the specific module and problem. Following is a display of the screen after using the Tile option from the Solutions menu when the screen resolution was set to 1, by 1, With this resolution it may be very useful to tile in order to see all of the available solution windows.

In fact, using Help, User Information, you could set all solution windows to open up for every problem.

Obviously, the value of this option depends on your screen resolution. The third option is the topic; it gives a description of the module, the data required for input, the output results, and the options available in the module.

It is worthwhile to look at this screen at least one time in order to be certain that there are no unsuspected differences between your assumptions and the assumptions of the program. If there is anything to be warned about regarding the option, it will appear on the help screen as well as in Chapter 6 of this manual. E-mail support uses your e-mail to set up a message to be sent to Pearson. Program Update points you to www. Updates are on the download page.

User Information Options The user information form is shown as follows. The first tab can be used to change the name of the course, instructor, or school. The student name is set at the time of installation of the software and cannot be changed. There are differences among displays, models available, and computations for different textbooks. Notice the build number after the version number.

If you send e-mail requesting help, please be sure to include this build number. This site contains updates! There are several options on this screen. Information to Print The options in the frame depend on whether Print was selected from the data screen or from the solution screen.

From the data screen, the only option that will appear is to print the data. However, from the solution screen there will be one option for each screen of solution values. You can select which of these will be printed other than the graph which must be printed separately. In general, the data is printed when printing the output, and, therefore, it is seldom necessary to print the data, meaning that all printing can be performed after the problem is solved.

Printing Graphs It is possible to do your graph printing from the graph screen described in the next chapter rather than from the results screen. Paper Orientation The paper can be printed in upright fashion portrait or it can be printed sideways landscape if you need more space for columns.

Color Do not opt for color if you do not have a color printer. This usually is not the desired characteristic.

Margins The left and right margins can be set as. Some of the modules have more than one graph associated with them. For example, as shown in the following figure, four different project management graphs are available. The graph to be displayed is chosen using the tab. There are several options that you have when a graph appears, and those options are explained in this chapter. When a graph is opened it will be displayed covering the entire area below the extra data.

The Save option will save the graph as a BMP file. The Copy option can be used to copy the graph in order to paste it into another Windows document. The Print image will send the graph to your printer and print on one page. The Windows Snipping Tool can be opened with the last option. The input required for each module, the options available for modeling and solving, and the different output screens and reports that can be seen and printed are explained.

For all modules that are in included in the POM menu, we display the POM for Windows icon and for all modules that are in the QM menu we display the QM for Windows icon: For example, in the first module, aggregate planning, which begins on the next page, the POM icon is displayed because aggregate planning is typically a topic in Operations Management courses but not in Management Science courses and thus appears in the POM-only menu.

In addition, examples from your textbook have been included in a folder with the name of the first author of the textbook.

For these modules, the names used by KRM follow the names used by the software. Aggregate planning refers to the fact that the production planning is usually carried out across product lines. The terms aggregate planning and production planning are used interchangeably. The main planning difficulty is that demands vary from month to month. Production should remain as stable as possible, yet it should maintain minimum inventory and experience minimum shortages.

The costs of production, overtime, subcontracting, inventory, shortages, and changes in production levels must be balanced. In some cases, aggregate planning problems might require the use of the transportation or linear programming modules.

The second submodel in the aggregate planning module creates and solves a transportation model of aggregate planning for cases where all of the costs are identical. The transportation model is also available as one of the methods for the first submodel.

The Aggregate Planning Model Production planning problems are characterized by a demand schedule, a set of capacities, various costs, and a method for handling shortages. Consider the following example. Example 1: Smooth Production Consider a situation where demands in the next four periods are for , , , and units.

Current inventory is 0 units. Suppose that regular time capacity is units per month and that overtime and subcontracting are not considerations. The screen for this example follows. In addition to the data, there are two considerations — shortage handling and the method to use for performing the planning. These appear in the area above the data. Shortage handling. In production planning there are two models for handling shortages.

In one model, shortages are backordered. In another model, the shortages become lost sales. That is, if you cannot satisfy the demand in the period in which it is requested, the demand disappears. This option is above the data table. Six methods are available, which will be demonstrated. Please note that smooth production accounts for two methods.

Smooth production will have equal production in every period. This yields two methods because the production can be set according to the gross demand or the net demand gross demand minus initial inventory. Produce to demand will create a production schedule that is identical to the demand schedule. Constant regular time production, followed by overtime and subcontracting if necessary.

The lesser cost method will be selected first. Any production schedule is available in which case the user must enter the amounts to be produced in each period. The transportation model. Quantities Demand. The demands are the driving force of aggregate planning and these are given in the second column. Capacities — regular time, overtime, and subcontracting. The program allows for three types of production — regular time, overtime, and subcontracting, — and capacities for these are given in the next three columns.

When deciding whether to use overtime or subcontracting, the program will always first select the one that is less expensive.

Costs The costs for the problem are all placed in the far right column of the data screen. Production costs — regular time, overtime, and subcontracting. These are the per- unit production costs depending on when and how the unit is made. Inventory holding cost.

This is the amount charged for holding 1 unit for 1 period. The total holding cost is charged against the ending inventory. Be careful; although most textbooks charge against the ending inventory, some textbooks charge against average inventory during the period. Shortage cost. This is the amount charged for each unit that is short in a given period. Whether it is assumed that the shortages are backlogged and satisfied as soon as stock becomes available in a future period or are lost sales is indicated by the option box above the data table.

Shortage costs are charged against end-of- month levels. Cost to increase production. This is the cost that results from having changes in the production schedule. It is given on a per-unit basis. The cost for increasing production entails hiring costs. It is charged against the changes in the amount of regular time production but not charged against any overtime or subcontracting production volume changes.

If the units produced last period see other considerations below is zero, there will be no charge for increasing production in the first period. Cost to decrease production. This is similar to the cost of increasing production and is also given on a per-unit basis. However, this is the cost for reducing production. It is charged only against regular time production volume changes.

Other Considerations Initial inventory. Oftentimes we have a starting inventory from the end of the previous period. The starting inventory is placed in the far right column towards the bottom.

Units last period. These units appear in the far right column at the bottom. The Solution In the first example, shown in the following screen, the smooth production method and backorders have been chosen.

The demands are , , , and , and the regular time capacity of exceeds this demand. There is no initial inventory. The numbers represent the production quantities. The costs can be seen toward the bottom of the columns. The screen contains information on both a period-by-period basis and on a summary basis. Notice the color coding of the data black , intermediate computations magenta and results blue.

Regular time production. This amount is determined by the program for all options except User Defined. In this example, because the gross or net demand is , there are units produced in regular time in each of the 4 periods.

If the total demand is not an even multiple of the number of periods, extra units will be produced in as many periods as necessary in order to meet the demand.

For example, had the total demand been , the production schedule would have been in the first and second periods and in the other two periods. The accumulated inventory appears in this column if it is positive. If there is a shortage, the amount of the shortage appears in this column. In the example, the in the shortage column for Period 3 means that units of demand have not been met. Because the backlog option has been chosen, the demands are met as soon as possible, which is in the last period.

In this example, no increase or decrease from month to month occurs, so these columns do not appear in this display. The total numbers of units demanded, produced, in inventory, short, or in increased and decreased production are computed. In the example, units were demanded and units were produced, and there were a total of unit- months of inventory, unit-months of shortage, and 0 increased or decreased production unit-months. The totals of the columns are multiplied by the appropriate costs, yielding the total cost for each of the cost components.

Total cost. The overall total cost is computed and displayed. Graph Two graphs are available in this module. It is possible to display a bar graph of production in each period not shown , and it is also possible to display a graph of the cumulative production versus the cumulative demand shown. These modifications can be seen in the following screen. In addition, the method has been changed to use the net demand. Thus only units per month need to be produced.

This can be seen as follows. Because there is not enough regular time capacity, the program looks to overtime and subcontracting. It first chooses the one that is less expensive. Example 4: When subcontracting is less expensive than overtime The following screen shows a case where subcontracting is less expensive than overtime.

This time, the program first chooses subcontracting and, because there is sufficient capacity, overtime is not used at all. The output shows a shortage of units at the end of Period 3. In the next period, we produce units even though we need only units. These extra units are not used to satisfy the Period 3 shortage, because these have become lost sales.

The units go into inventory, as can be seen from the inventory column in Period 4. It does not make sense to use the smooth production model and have lost sales.

In the end, the total demand is not actually , because of the sales were lost. Example 6: The produce to demand no inventory strategy From the first example the method has been toggled to produce to demand or chase strategy. The inventory is not displayed because it is always 0 under this option.

With production equal to demand and no starting inventory, there will be neither changes in inventory nor shortages. In this example, production in Period 1 was and production in Period 2 was Therefore, the increase column has a in it for Period 2.

The program will not list any increase in Period 1 if no initial production is given. The total increases have been ; decreases The change in production from the previous period to this period occurs in this column if the change represents an increase.

Notice that the program assumes that no change takes place in the first period in this example because the initial data not displayed indicated that 0 units were produced last month. In this example, there is no change in other periods because production is constant under the smooth production option. If production decreases, the decrease appears in this column. Example 7: Increase and decrease charging The previous example had increases and decreases in production.

These increases and decreases are accounted for by regular time production. In the following screen, the regular time capacity is reduced in order to force production through regular time and overtime. Notice that the increase column only has a value in it in the second period when regular time production went from to units. The regular time production remains at ; even though overtime increases, this does not show up in the increase columns. There are no charges against overtime or subcontracting increases.

The only difference is that the transportation model does not consider changes in production levels, so there is no data entry allowed for increase and decrease costs or for units last period. The creation screen will ask for the number of periods and whether shortages are allowed. The similarity to the previous input screens can be seen as follows. Notice that there is only one entry for each of the costs.

Thus, this model can not be used for situations where the costs change from period to period. You must formulate these problems yourself using the transportation model from the Module menu rather than this transportation submodel of aggregate planning. Note: The transportation model that is the second submodel in the New menu can also be accessed as the last method in the first submodel, The solution screen is displayed next.

The window on the right summarizes the production quantities, unit-months of holding and shortage if applicable , and the costs. It is even more obvious that this is a transportation problem if the second window of output which is the transportation model itself is examined. The large numbers 9, have been entered in order to preclude the program from backordering. If you like, this table could be copied; you could then open the Transportation model, create a new empty table that is 13 by 4 and paste this data in to that table.

Five heuristic rules can be used for performing the balance. The cycle time can be given explicitly or the production rate can be given and the program will compute the cycle time.

This model will not split tasks. Task splitting is discussed in more detail in a later section. The Model The general framework for assembly-line balancing is dictated by the number of tasks that are to be balanced. These tasks are partially ordered, as shown, for example in the precedence diagram that follows. The five heuristic rules that can be chosen are as follows: 1.

Longest operation time 2. Most following tasks 3. Ranked positional weight 4. Shortest operation time 5. Note that tie breaking can affect the final results.

The remaining parameters are as follows: Cycle time computation. The cycle time can be given in one of two ways. One way involves giving the cycle time directly as shown in the preceding screen. Although this is the easiest method, it is more common to determine the cycle time from the demand rate. The cycle time is converted into the same units as the times for the tasks.

See Example 2. Task time unit. The time unit for the tasks is given by this drop-down box. You must choose seconds, hours, or minutes. Notice that the column heading for the task times will change as you select different time units. Task names. The task names are essential for assembly-line balancing because they determine the precedences.

Case does not matter. Task times. The task times are given. Enter the precedences, one per cell. If there are two precedences they must be entered in two cells.

In fact, a comma will not be accepted. Notice that in the precedence list in the previous screen both a and A have been typed. As mentioned previously, the case of the letters is irrelevant. Example 1 In this example there are six tasks, a through f. The precedence diagram for this problem appears previously.

The time to perform each task is above the task. Also, note that the tasks that are ready at the beginning of the balance are tasks a and b. Finally, in this first example, we use a cycle time of Solution The following screen contains the solution to the first example. The solution screen consists of two windows as shown in the following screen.

The window on the left gives the complete results for the method chosen whereas the window on the right gives the number of stations required not the theoretical number when using each balancing rule. The solution screen will always have the same appearance and contain the same information regardless of the rule that is chosen for the balance.

This is not always the case as is demonstrated later in this section. Station numbers. The station numbers appear in the far left column.

They are displayed only for the first task that is loaded into each station. In this example, three stations are required. The tasks that are loaded into the station are listed in the second column. In this example, Tasks b, e, and a are in Station 1; Tasks d and c are in Station 2; and Task f is in station 3.

The length of time for each task appears in the third column. Time left. The length of time that remains at the station is listed in the fourth column. The last number at each station is, of course, the idle time at that station. The idle times are colored in red. For example, there is 1 second of idle time at Station 1, 1 second of idle time at Station 2, and 2 seconds of idle time at Station 3, for a total of 4 seconds of idle time per cycle.

Ready tasks. The tasks that are ready appear here. A ready task is any task that has had its precedences met. This is emphasized because some books do not list a task as ready if its time exceeds the time remaining at the station. Also, if the number of characters in the ready task list is very long, you might want to widen that column.

The cycle time that was used appears below the balance. This cycle time was either given directly or computed. In this example, the cycle time was given directly as 10 seconds. Time allocated. The total time allocated for making each unit is displayed. This time is the product of the number of stations and the cycle time at each station.

In this example there are three stations, each with a cycle time of 10 seconds, for a total work time of 30 station-seconds. The time needed to make one unit. This is simply the sum of the task times. Idle time. This is the time needed subtracted from the time allocated. Efficiency is defined as the time needed divided by the time allocated. Balance delay. The balance delay is the percentage of wasted time or percent minus the efficiency. Minimum theoretical number of stations.

This is the total time to make 1 unit divided by the cycle time and rounded up to the nearest integer. In this example, 26 seconds are required to make 1 unit divided by a second cycle time for an answer of 2. In addition, a second window opens that displays the number of stations required using each of the different balancing rules.

In this particular case, each rule led to the same number of stations, 3. This is not always the case as shown in Example 4. The precedence graph can be displayed see the end of this section , as well as a bar graph indicating how much time was used at each station. These are shown at the end of this section. In addition, if there is idle time at every station, a note will appear at the top indicating that the balance can be improved by reducing the cycle time.

For example, because there are idle times of 1, 1, and 2 seconds at the three stations, we could reduce the cycle time by 1 second. Example 2: Computing the cycle time Suppose that for the same data a production rate of units in 7. Other Rules Other rules that may be used are mentioned although the results are not displayed. Please note that this is one of the modules where if you change the method using the drop-down box from the solution screen, the problem will immediately be resolved.

That is, you do not need to use the EDIT button and return to the data. Most Following Tasks A common way to choose tasks is by using the task with the most following tasks. Notice from the diagram at the beginning of the section that a has three tasks following it, and b also has two tasks following it. Therefore, there is a tie for the first task. If Task a is chosen then the next task chosen will be Task b because Task b has 3 following tasks whereas Task c has only one. The task with the largest weight is scheduled first if it will fit in the remaining time.

Notice that e has a higher ranked positional weight than c. Least Number of Followers The last rule that is available is the least number of followers. Example 3: What to do if longest operation time will not fit Some books and some software do not apply the longest operation time rule properly. If the task with the longest time will not fit into the station, the task with the second longest time should be placed in the station if it will fit.

In the following screen data is presented for eight tasks. The download is offered as it is, with no corrections or alterations performed on our side. This tool was checked for viruses and was found to be safe. The file can be downloaded solely from the developer’s website, so SoftDeluxe team bears no responsibility for the safety of the file. It is recommended that you check it for viruses.

Downloading QM for Windows 5. By Prentice-Hall Inc. Download details: File size:. About this program: Description Screenshots. Notes about this free download: Thank you for choosing us to download QM for Windows, we are glad to know you are among our users. Alternative software.


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Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction Fir Customization due to textbook Useful hints for modules It seems as if people have been using both minicomputers and Windows forever but, in fact, large-scale Windows usage has occurred for less than 15 years. Today, the large majority of students have their own computers, which makes this software rree more valuable than it has ever been.

This is a package that can be used to supplement any textbook in the broad area known as Decision Sciences. DS for Windows, which contained all of the modules in both POM читать полностью QM and also came with a printed manual, was first distributed in Version 2 ppom all three programs was created for Windows 95 and distributed in the fall of This is especially nice because Windows no longer ships with winhelp.

Version 5 has been developed under vb. While downloaf does not смотрите подробнее tabs as in Office, the UI looks much more like a newer Office program than an old Windows program.

Starting new problems is now quicker, especially if the problems all are from the same module. This is relevant for copying, inserting or deleting cells. Modules can now be accessed by chapter as well as frde. I welcome your comments, especially by e-mail at dsSoftware prenhall. I вот ссылка been very fortunate in gaining the support and gor of students and colleagues from around the globe.

For this version, Fere cannot overstate my gratitude to Professor Barry Stannard of the University of Lethbridge pom qm for windows full version free download free Canada and his students pom qm for windows full version free download free their careful testing and windpws on the alpha and beta versions of Version 5.

For previous versions I would like to thank the students in my classes at Temple University over the past 30 years. These students have always been the first to see the new versions, and over the years several students have offered design features that were incorporated into the software. Other design features were developed in response to comments sent to me from users of the previous versions. I am extremely grateful for these comments; they have источник статьи helped the vwrsion and continuous improvement of POM-QM for Windows.

I am pom qm for windows full version free download free grateful to Rree Kamauf for her thorough review of Version 4 of this software. Several changes in the software were put into place in previous versions as a result of the comments ffee Philip Entwistle, Northampton Business School. Their comments were very influential in the design of the software that has been carried over pom qm for windows full version free download free the new version.

Nicolay Jr. Discussions with Fred Murphy and the late Carl Harris have been very useful to me, especially doqnload the вот ссылка programming and queueing modules. There are several individuals at Pearson to whom I must give special thanks.

Frew all editors have their keen understanding of computers, software, texts, students, and professors. I am grateful for their many suggestions and the fact that they chose my software as the software to accompany their texts. As always, I must express my appreciation and love to my wife, Lucia, for her understanding and support during the many hours that I have spent and continue to жмите сюда in front of my PC improving this software.

In addition, I am grateful for the valuable comments and suggestions regarding the look and feel of the software from Lucia and my children, Lisa and Ernie. This package is the most user-friendly software package available in the fields of production and operations management, quantitative methods, management science, and operations research. The software can be used either to solve problems or to check answers that have been derived by hand.

In this introduction and the next four chapters, the general features of the software are described. You are encouraged to read them while running the software on your computer. You will find that flr software is very user friendly as a result of the following features. Standardization The graphical user interface for winrows software is a standard Windows interface.

Anyone familiar with any standard spreadsheet, word processor, or presentation package in Windows easily will be able to use the software. This standard interface includes the customary menu, toolbar, status bar, and help files of Windows programs.

Even though the software contains 29 modules and more than 60 submodels, the screens versiom every module are consistent, so, after you become accustomed to using one module, you will have an easy time with the other modules.

Files are opened and saved in the usual Windows fashion and, in addition, читать полностью are named by module, which makes it easy to find previously saved wincows. Data and ppm, including graphs, can be easily copied and pasted between this application нажмите чтобы прочитать больше other Windows applications.

Flexibility There are several preferences that the user can select from the Help, User Information menu. For example, the software can be set to automatically save a file after data has been entered or to automatically solve a problem after data has been loaded from a file.

The menu of modules can be either a menu that pom qm for windows full version free download free only POM model, a menu that list only QM models, or a menu pom qm for windows full version free download free lists all available models.

The user can select the desired output to print rather than having to print everything. In addition, several tor formatting options are available. Some screen components and the eownload can be customized by the user. This can be particularly effective for overhead data shows. The software can be run off of a thumb drive which means that students can run the software on any PC they can access without installing по ссылке software to the PC as long as widows have installed the software to their qindows drive.

This is particularly useful to students who have Mac computers at home but access to PCs at their school. User-oriented design The spreadsheet-type data editor makes data entry and editing extremely easy. In addition, whenever data is to be entered, there is a clear instruction given on the screen describing what is to windowa entered.

Textbook compatibility A menu item for the textbook has been added. Help is available by contacting dsSoftware pearson. What all of this means to you is that, with a minimal investment of time in learning versionn basics of POM-QM for Windows, you will have an easy-to-use means of solving problems or checking your homework.

Rather than being limited to looking at the answers in the back of your textbook, you will be able to see the solutions for most problems. In many cases, the intermediate steps are displayed fulll order to help you check your work. In addition, you will have the capability to perform sensitivity fdee on these problems or to solve bigger, more interesting problems. Hardware and Software Requirements Computer The software has minimal system requirements.

Net Framework 4. Monitor The software has no special monitor requirements. Different colors are pom qm for windows full version free download free to portray different items, such as data and results. All messages, output, data, and so ссылка will appear on any monitor. Regardless of the type of monitor you use, the versikn has the capability that allows you to customize fonts, font sizes and some colors in the display to по этой ссылке liking.

These options are explained in Chapter 3 in the section titled Format. Printer A printer is not required to run the software but, of course, if you want a hard copy printoutthen it is necessary to have a printer attached. The printing is standard so that no special features, characters, or printers are required. Typographic conventions in this manual 1. Boldface indicates something that you type or press. Brackets, [ ], name a key on the keyboard or a command button on the screen. The name of the key varies on different keyboards and some keyboards even have both keys.

Boldface and the pom qm for windows full version free download free first letter of a term refer to a Windows menu command. For example, Rownload refers to the menu command. Installing the Software The software is installed in the manner in which most programs designed for Windows are installed. For all Windows installations, including this one, it is best to be certain that no other programs are running while you are installing a new one.

Go to the appropriate Pearson web site or your MyOMLab course, download the installation file and follow the setup instructions on the screen. Generally speaking, it is simply necessary to click [NEXT] each time that the installation asks a question. Default values have been assigned in the setup program, but you may change them if you like. This name cannot be changed later! To change the other information from within the program, use Pom qm for windows full version free download free, User Information.


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QM for Windows Free Mathematical analyzer for management science and quantitative methods. 4. Rating. QM for Windows Free. Mathematically analyzes management science, operations and quantitative methods. Includes calculation methods for decision analysis.